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A numerical and experimental investigation of the convective heat transfer on a small helicopter rotor test setup

Samad, Abdallah, Villeneuve, Eric, Morency, François et Volat, Christophe. 2021. « A numerical and experimental investigation of the convective heat transfer on a small helicopter rotor test setup ». Aerospace, vol. 8, nº 2.

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In-flight icing affects helicopter performance, limits its operations, and reduces safety. The convective heat transfer is an important parameter in numerical icing simulations and state-of-the-art icing/de-icing codes utilize important computing resources when calculating it. The BEMT–RHT and UVLM–RHT offer low- and medium-fidelity approaches to estimate the rotor heat transfer (RHT). They are based on a coupling between Blade element momentum theory (BEMT) or unsteady vortex lattice method (UVLM), and a CFD-determined heat transfer correlation. The latter relates the Frossling number (Fr) to the Reynolds number (Re) and effective angle of attack (αEff). In a series of experiments carried out at the Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), this paper serves as a proof of concept of the proposed correlations. The objective is to propose correlations for the experimentally measured rotor heat transfer data. Specifically, the Frx is correlated with the Re and αEff in a similar form as the proposed CFD-based correlations. A fixed-wing setup is first used as a preliminary step to verify the heat transfer measurements of the icing wind tunnel (IWT). Tests are conducted at α = 0°, for a range of 4.76 × 105 ≤ Re ≤ 1.36 × 106 and at 10 non-dimensional surface wrap locations − 0.62 ≤ (S/c) ≤ + 0.87. Later, a rotor setup is used to build the novel heat transfer correlation, tests are conducted at two pitch angles ((θ) = 0° and 6°) for a range of rotor speeds (500 RPM ≤ (Ω) ≤ 1500 RPM), three different radial positions ((r/R) = 0.6, 0.75 and 0.95), and 0 ≤ S/c ≤ + 0.58. Results indicate that the fixed-wing Frx at the stagnation point was in the range of literature experimental data, and within 8% of fully turbulent CFD simulations. The FrAvg also agrees with CFD predictions, with an average discrepancy of 1.4%. For the rotor, the Ω caused a similar increase of Frx for the tests at θ = 0° and those at θ = 6°. Moreover, the Frx behavior changed significantly with r/R, suggesting the αEff had a significant effect on the Frx. Finally, the rotor data are first correlated with Rem (at each S/c) for θ = 0° to establish the correlation parameters, and a term for the αEff is then added to also account for the tests at θ = 6°. The correlations fit the data with an error between 2.1% and 14%, thus justifying the use of a coupled approach for the BEMT–RHT and UVLM–RHT.

Item Type: Peer reviewed article published in a journal
Morency, François
Affiliation: Génie mécanique
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2021 19:23
Last Modified: 04 Mar 2021 21:30

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